Acute toxicology

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Cultured cells Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) Fibroblasts HEKs HEKs HEKs, dermal fibroblasts HEKs Cultured Chinese hamster ovary Cultured C3 H10T1/2 and HEK cells Cultured cells BHK21/C13 BHK21/C13 Primary rat Thymocytes Rat periodontal mast cells IV. Miscellaneous biological systems Hen's egg SKINTEX--protein mixtuer V. Mathematical models Structure-activity relationship (SAR) model SAR model Endpoint Validation data? a Reference Swelling No Dannenberg (1987) Inhibition of incorporation of [3H]thymidine and [14C]leucine labels Leakage of LDH and GOT No Kao et al.

129-138. Liebert, New York. , and Bagley, D. (1988). Surfactant-induced cutaneous primary irritancy: An in vitro model-assay system development. In Progress in in Vitro Toxicology (A. M. ), pp. 39-43. Liebert, New York. Department of Transportation Code of Federal Regulations (1992). Title 49, 173:137. Derelanko, M. , Gad, S. , Gavigan, F. , and Dunn, B. J. (1985). Acute dermal toxicity of dilute hydrofluoric acid. Ocular Dermal Toxicol. 4(2), 74-85. Draize, J. , and Calvery, H. O. (1944). Method for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes.

This is an effort that extends back to the early 1960s (Choman, 1963), but which saw little progress until the 1990s. Table 6 overviews 20 proposed systems that now constitute five very different approaches. The first set of approaches (I) uses patches of excised human or animal skin maintained in some modification of a glass diffusion cell which maintains the moisture, temperature, oxygenation, and electrolyte balance of the skin section. In this approach, after the skin section has been allowed to equilibrate for some time, the material of concern is placed on the exterior surface and wetted (if not liquid).

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