By Horst Böhm, Klaus-Detlef Closs, Klaus Kühn (auth.), Jeffery Lewins, Martin Becker (eds.)
The Editors enjoy providing quantity thirteen of this annual assessment sequence, consisting, as traditional, of writer itative experiences of well timed advancements within the technical fields of nuclear engineering, technological know-how, and teechnology. nobody locally we attempt to serve in a publish Harrisburg period will desire convincing of the relevance of the 1st goods to be pointed out from the amount. Instru mentation for two-phase circulate measurements, via Banerjee and Lahey, has applicability within the engineering examine exertions atory and to strength reactors; the U. S. LWR nonetheless continues to be the dominant strength reactor variety and turns out prone to preserve its carry if in basic terms throughout the capital of current vegetation this century. Messrs. Bohm, Closs, and Kuhn, notwithstanding, have an extended time scale to admire as they view for us the clients of nuclear waste disposal from a eu point of view. they create out properly the political facets that can't be divorced from technical issues during this quarter, or within the extra militant phrases of war of words, during this area, might be. we're happy to hold during this quantity complemen tary papers on mathematical equipment in nuclear engineering.
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Also, plastics sometimes are used as material for fixing. Most of the methods described so far for conditioning radioactive waste have been used for many years and have proved to work most satisfactorily. Both concrete and bitumen products in principle lend themselves to the disposal of low and intermediate level wastes. However, they exhibit certain differences in chemical stability. The leaching rates of cement products generally are in the range between 10-6 and 10- 7 kg/nf s, while RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL 21 they are around 10 -8 to 10- 9 kg/m 2s for bitumen and plastic products, respectively (24).
A summary of all solidification methods used so far was compiled by IAEA (18). The simplest way of solidification is by calcination. Calcinates are produced by drying the waste concentrates and subsequent heating to 400 0 to gOO DC. They can be produced in powder, granular and cake forms. Several calcination techniques have been developed (fluidized bed, spray, and pot calcination). At the Idaho National Engineering 22 H. BOHM ET AL. med on a production basis for almost 15 years (18,30). mediate products.
Further Options For several years, several future options for the disposal of radioactive wasts have been discussed. In general, these discussions are dying, but for completeness they shall be mentioned here. A rather doubtful method from the beginning was the proposal to dispose of radioactive waste by shooting it into outer space (51). At the present state of rocket technology, this clearly is not possible. The payloads of rockets are much too low to allow all radioactive waste to be disposed of in this way, even if it were only the high-level waste.