By Ricardo Garcia
Filling a spot within the literature, this e-book good points in-depth discussions on amplitude modulation AFM, supplying an summary of the idea, instrumental issues and purposes of the approach in either academia and undefined. As such, it comprises examples from fabric technological know-how, smooth condensed topic, molecular biology, and biophysics, between others. The textual content is written in any such method as to allow readers from varied backgrounds and degrees of workmanship to discover the data appropriate for his or her wishes.
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Additional info for Amplitude Modulation Atomic Force Microscopy
The total force acting on the tip includes the elastic response k(z z0), the hydrodynamic damping, and the interaction force Fts. 3 The Point Mass Model: Elemental Aspects In this approximation, the gradient of the force is the relevant factor that inﬂuences the tip motion. 2, we recover the equation of a forced damped harmonic oscillator, mz€ ¼ ðk kts Þz mv z_ þ F0 cos vt þ Fts ð0Þ Q ð4:14Þ with an effective spring constant keff, keff ¼ k ðdFts =dzÞ0 : ð4:15Þ Then, the new effective resonant frequency is calculated by veff ¼ ðkeff =mÞ1=2 and the difference Dv ¼ veff Dv % ðv0 kts =2kÞ: ð4:16Þ v0 can be approximated by ð4:17Þ The above equations show that whenever the interaction force can be approximated by its linear term, the amplitude modulation AFM behaves as a harmonic oscillator with a resonant frequency that depends on the gradient of the interaction.
75 N/m) in air and water. The medium does considerably alter the resonance curves. In liquid, the resonance curve is wider (Qwater ¼ 3 versus Qair ¼ 60 in this example). At the same time, the resonant frequency is shifted to lower values. 9 Experimental resonance curves in water and air. Notice the shift of the resonant frequency and the broadening of the resonance when the measurement is done in water. Adapted from Ref. . The above curves were taken very far from the sample surface, so the tip surface forces did not affect the curve.
Capillary forces could disrupt the observed objects. 19 shows that capillary force values in an AFM interface could be in the 1 100 nN range, that is, they could dominate all other tip surface forces. 5 Forces in Liquid Capillary forces disappear when the tip and the sample are both immersed in a liquid; however, the interaction of the liquid with the solid surfaces gives rise to other forces such as solvation or electrostatic double layer forces. 1 Electrostatic Double-Layer Force Solid surfaces are charged when they are in contact with polar liquids, in particular with water.