An Introduction to Human Blood Groups by M.D. Fulton Roberts

By M.D. Fulton Roberts

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Nor is administration of c or e blood into CC or EE persons entirely without risk and both anti-c and anti-e may be encountered, more particularly the former. It follows that the administration of rhesus negative blood (dce/dce) to rhesus positive persons is potentially dangerous and should not be done illadvisedly. For most practical purposes D is the antigen that matters, but it is as well to bear in mind that the other members of the Rh complex (except d) may occasionally give rise to antibody formation.

But in turning now to other blood groups, particularly those discovered before the Rhesus factor, some additional complications arise when recent discoveries have to be grafted on to an existing notation. Of this the MNS system provides an example. The antigens M and N were first described in 1927, and were discovered in experiments on rabbit antisera prepared against human cells ; however, human examples of anti-M and anti-N are fully substantiated. M and N are alleles for a single locus so that, as usual, one can find homozygous persons, MM or NN, or heterozygous persons, MN.

The incidence is approximately 76 per cent Jk a and 74 per cent. J k \ KIDD New blood groups are being discovered astonishingly frequently. Some are so rare that no examples are found outside the families of the patients in whom they were first discovered. Others, after a period of independent existence, are shown to be related to one of the existing systems. Some recently discovered antigens whose progress may be worth watching are Wr a , Di a , Yt a , Vel and Js°. CHAPTER VII THE MNS SYSTEM IT is at this stage that the reader may appreciate the decision to present a summary of knowledge of human blood groups in the order that has been selected.

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