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Extra info for Angiography and Plaque Imaging Advanced Segmentation Techniques
TOF technique is not robust under complicated flow conditions, including slowly flowing blood flow, turbulent blood flow, recirculated and swirling blood flow, which is usually present in tortuous vessels. Under such cases, signal void can appear, falsifying stenoses or occlusions. 2. Depending on the sequence parameters used and flow condition (oblique flow), TOF suffers from the phase shift effect, which causes misregistration between vessel lumen and blood flow, resulting in distortion (the flow images are not identical to the vessel lumen).
These articles cite more than ten good survey papers in the area of medical imaging. The discussion of those articles is out of the scope of this chapter. Segmentation in angiography has been active since 1985 when digital subtraction angiography (DSA) began (see [13, 14]). The layout of this section is as follows. 1 presents the thresholding-based techniques. 2. 3. 4. 5. 15 Images showing arterial flow (bright blood) in the brain. 7 ms, TR = 27 ms, FoV = 20 cm, matrix size = 384 × 512, NSA = 1, flip angle = 35◦ , thickness = 1 mm, gap = 0 mm.
The first injection uses only a small amount (dose) of contrast agent, which measures the timing of the contrast agent arrival, as well as the arterial phase (arteries are filled with contrast agent) and venous phase (veins are filled with contrast agent). Those parameters are passed to the MR system and used when a full dose of the contrast agent is injected into the patient. Real-time bolus tracking can be performed either by monitoring k-space signal intensity changes (Smart-PrepTM ) or directly visualizing fluoroscopic images acquired at a rate of about 1 second/frame.